Hip Extension Torque: extended contents

Hip Extension Torque

For many years, the posterior chain was the sole prerogative of powerlifters, who realized that this sequence of muscles was essential to lifting big weights.

With the adoption of powerlifting methods into mainstream strength training, coaches are developing programs that put the posterior chain at the center.

And the results are unmistakable.  With greater hip extension strength, athletes are running faster, jumping higher and increasing in agility.

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Detailed contents

1. What is hip extension and hip extension range-of-motion?

  1. Why study hip extension range of motion?
  2. What are hip flexion and extension?
  3. What are hip flexion and extension ranges of motion?
  4. What factors affect hip extension range-of-motion?
  5. What is a normal hip extension range-of-motion?
  6. How does hip extension ROM change with hip abduction and knee flexion?
  7. How is hip joint flexibility different between males and females?
  8. How does hip extension ROM change with lower back pain?
  9. How does hip extension ROM change with increasing age?
  10. How does hip extension ROM change in development?
  11. How does hip extension ROM relate to the functional ability of older people?
  12. Does limited hip extension ROM lead to reduced hip extension strength?
  13. Does limited hip abduction ROM lead to reduced hip abduction strength?
  14. How can hip extension range-of-motion be increased?

2. What is pelvic tilt?

  1. Why study anterior and posterior pelvic tilt?
  2. What are anterior and posterior pelvic tilt?
  3. How do muscles create anterior and posterior pelvic tilt?
  4. Does muscle activity change with pelvic tilt?
  5. How does pelvic tilt change during sitting and standing?
  6. Does muscular balance during hip extension affect pelvic tilt?
  7. What is a normal pelvic tilt angle in men and women?
  8. Is anterior pelvic tilt correlated with lumbar lordosis?
  9. How does lumbar curvature change during a functional lifting task?
  10. How does restricting pelvic motion affect lower back training?
  11. Do the hip extensors decrease in activity with restricted pelvic motion?
  12. Can pelvic tilt angle change because of sporting activities?
  13. What is the normal tilting behavior of the pelvis during running?
  14. Does lumbar lordosis correlate with anterior pelvic tilt during running?
  15. How does hip extension ROM relate to anterior pelvic tilt during running?
  16. When are anterior and posterior pelvic tilt advisable during lifting?
  17. How can we control the degree of pelvic tilt using exercise?
  18. Which abdominal exercises are best for reducing anterior pelvic tilt?
  19. Which abdominal exercises do not also activate the hip flexors?
  20. How can we control the degree of pelvic tilt using exercise?

3. What is muscle architecture?

  1. Why study muscle architecture?
  2. What is muscle architecture?
  3. What is pennation angle?
  4. Why is pennation angle important?
  5. What causes the pennation angle to change?
  6. What is normalized fiber length?
  7. What causes normalized fiber length to change?
  8. What is physiological cross-sectional area?
  9. What is physiological cross-sectional area?
  10. Why is physiological cross-sectional area important?
  11. How are muscle architecture parameters related?

4. Which are the hip extensor muscles?

  1. Why study the hip extensors?
  2. What are the hip extensor muscles?
  3. How do the hip extensors stack up against the other hip muscles?
  4. What are the origins and insertions of the hip extensor muscles?
  5. Which are the biggest hip extensor muscles?
  6. What is the pennation angle of each of the hip extensors?
  7. What is the normalized fiber length of each of the hip extensors?
  8. What is the physiological cross-sectional area of each of the hip extensors?
  9. Why do the hamstrings have different architecture from each other?
  10. How does the muscle architecture of the hamstrings change with joint angle?
  11. How might the architecture of the hamstrings influence their risk of strains?
  12. What is the architecture of the different regions of the hamstrings?
  13. What is the architecture of the different regions of the adductor magnus?
  14. What is the architecture of the different regions of the gluteus maximus?

5. What is the length-tension relationship?

  1. Why study the length-tension relationship?
  2. How does the length of a muscle affect the force exerted?
  3. What is the active length-tension relationship?
  4. What is the passive length-tension relationship?
  5. How do the passive and active length-tension relationships integrate?
  6. How does the length-tension relationship apply to a two-joint muscle?

6. What is the force-velocity relationship?

  1. Why study the force-velocity relationship?
  2. How does the force exerted by a muscle change with contraction velocity?

7. What is hip extension torque?

  1. Why study hip extension torque?
  2. What is torque?
  3. Why talk about torque and not just force?
  4. How can we visualize torque?
  5. What is internal torque?
  6. What terminology is used for internal torque?
  7. What is hip extension torque?
  8. What is external torque?
  9. What terminology is used for external torque?
  10. What factors influence moment arm length?
  11. What are the moment arm lengths in the anatomical position?
  12. How do moment arms change with hip extension range of motion?
  13. What is the difference in moment arms between men and women?
  14. How can hypertrophy affect the length of muscle moment arms?
  15. What are perpendicular muscular forces?
  16. What factors influence the size of the perpendicular force?
  17. Which hip extensors have the most effective line of action?
  18. How does muscle architecture affect muscular force?
  19. Which muscles are activated best throughout hip extension ROM?
  20. How does the strength of the hip extensors change with muscle length?
  21. How does hip extension torque change with hip flexion?
  22. How does the torque of the hamstrings change with muscle length?
  23. How does hip extension torque change with contraction velocity?
  24. How does muscle fiber distribution affect muscular strength?
  25. How does muscle fiber distribution alter between muscles?

8. How does the degree of hip flexion affect the strength of the hip extensors?

  1. Why study where the hip extensors are strongest?
  2. How can we measure hip extension torque at different joint angles?
  3. How does isometric hip extension strength change with joint angle?
  4. How does isokinetic hip extension strength change with joint angle?
  5. Why is a comparison of internal and external torque curves helpful?

9. What effect does knee flexion have on hip extension exercises?

  1. Why study the impact of knee flexion?
  2. How does knee flexion alter the effect of a hip exercise?
  3. How does the degree of knee flexion alter the effect of an exercise?
  4. How does the torque of the hamstrings change with muscle length?
  5. How does the degree of knee flexion change muscle activity?
  6. How does the degree of knee flexion alter the effect of an exercise?

10. What effect does the direction of force have on hip extension exercises?

  1. Why study the impact of direction of force?
  2. What are the stretched and contracted positions?
  3. How do we specify direction of force?
  4. What directions of force are possible with hip extension?
  5. How does direction of force change the effect of an exercise?
  6. How can we compare similar exercises that have different directions of force?
  7. How does the direction of force affect the muscle activity?
  8. Why are the stretched or contracted positions important?
  9. Why do some exercises give you a pump in your glutes and hamstrings?
  10. Why do some exercises make your glutes and hamstrings sore?

11. How can we estimate torque for various movements?

  1. How can we calculate torque for various movements?
  2. How can we calculate torque for various exercises?
  3. How can we estimate torque in a deadlift?
  4. How can we estimate torque in a squat?
  5. How can we calculate torque in the good morning?
  6. How can we calculate torque in the reverse hyper?
  7. How can we calculate torque in the 45-degree back extension?
  8. How can we calculate torque in exercises in other positions?
  9. Why is it helpful to calculate hip extension torque at different ROMs?
  10. What is the hip extension torque during a glute-ham raise?

12. What is the hip extension torque during functional activities?

  1. Why study hip extension torque in functional activities?
  2. Which functional activities should we study?
  3. Is hip extension or hip flexion torque more important for walking?
  4. Is hip extension torque important for faster walking speeds?
  5. Is hip extension torque important for bone density?
  6. How is hip extension torque during sit-to-stand affected by load?
  7. Is hip extension torque in sit-to-stand affected by age?
  8. Is hip extension torque greater in sit-to-stand than in a free squat?
  9. Is hip extension torque during a sit-to-stand affected by chair height?
  10. Does foot placement affect hip extension torque during a sit-to-stand?
  11. Is hip extension torque during a sit-to-stand affected by obesity?
  12. How do hip and knee moments balance out during sit-to-stands?

13. What is the hip extension torque during high velocity activities?

  1. Why study hip extension torque in high-velocity activities?
  2. Which high velocity activities involve hip extension torque?
  3. Does hip extension torque correlate with vertical jumping performance?
  4. Do jumps in different directions require similar hip extension torques?
  5. How much hip extension torque do gymnastic drop landings produce?
  6. Do faster sprinting speeds require greater hip extension torques?
  7. How do accelerating sprints and maximum-speed sprints differ?
  8. Does hip extension torque increase with increasing side step distance?
  9. What is different about hex-bar jump squats?
  10. How much hip extension torque do the Olympic lifts require?
  11. How does hip extension torque change with load in the Olympic lifts?
  12. How can we maximize power outputs using the Olympic lifts?
  13. How can we maximize rate of force development using the Olympic lifts?
  14. Do the Olympic lifts improve athletic performance?
  15. How similar are the joint moments in jumping and jerking?
  16. What are the shear and compressive forces in the kettlebell swing?
  17. How do the kettlebell swing and jump squats compare?
  18. What are the ground reaction forces during the kettlebell swing?

14. What is the hip extension torque during high force exercises?

  1. Why study hip extension torque in high-force activities?
  2. Which high force activities involve hip extension torque?
  3. How are the good morning, back extension and 45O back extension different?
  4. Which requires greater hip extension torque: split squats or back squats?
  5. How does load position affect hip and knee moments in dumbbell squats?
  6. Which produces more power at the hip joint: front squats or back squats?
  7. How does hip extension torque during the lunge change with loading?
  8. Why might lunges make the quadriceps sorer than other exercises?
  9. Which type of lunge maximizes hip extension torque?
  10. Which type of step-up maximizes hip extension torque?
  11. How do depth and loading affect hip extension torque during the squat?
  12. How does technique affect hip extension torque in the squat?
  13. So should we prefer a hip-dominant squat?
  14. Does hip extension torque differ between legs in the squat?
  15. Does lifting speed affect hip extension torque in the squat?
  16. Does lifting speed affect hip extension torque in the squat?
  17. How can partial squats be used effectively in strength programs?
  18. Why might squats make the gluteals sorer than other exercises?
  19. How does stance width affect hip extension torque in squats?
  20. So is a wider squat stance width better?
  21. How does hip extension torque differ between normal, powerlifting and box squats?
  22. How does hip extension torque differ between taller and shorter lifters?
  23. How does hip extension torque differ with foot position in Smith Machine squats?
  24. How similar are the joint angles during the squat and deadlift?
  25. Can squat performance predict deadlift performance?
  26. How does stance width affect hip extension torque during deadlifts?
  27. So is the conventional or sumo stance better?
  28. How does skill level affect hip extension torque during deadlifts?
  29. How is hip extension torque different during straight and bent-leg deadlifts?
  30. How is hip extension torque different during hex-bar and conventional deadlifts?
  31. How does hip extension torque change with load during deadlifts?
  32. How much hip extension torque can powerlifters generate during deadlifts?
  33. How does load placement affect hip extension torque during sled dragging?
  34. What is the hip extension torque during a hip thrust?
  35. How do the torque curves of the key exercises compare?
  36. How does the total body effect of the key exercises compare?
  37. How does the effect of the key exercises on the glutes compare?

15. How does the proportion of hip extension torque change with increasing load/speed?

  1. Why study how the involvement of the hips changes with increasing load or speed?
  2. How does hip extension torque change with increasing load/speed?
  3. How does hip extension torque change with increasing squat load?
  4. How does hip extension torque change with increasing lunge load?
  5. How does hip extension torque change with increasing deadlift load?
  6. How does hip extension torque change with increasing running speed?
  7. How does hip extension torque change with increasing jumping height?
  8. How does hip extension torque change with increasing intensity?
  9. How does hip extension torque change with forward lean?

16. What are the directions for future research?

  1. What do we know that we don’t know?

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